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ESP and Precognition,& Telephathy:
The mental manifestations, or ESP, include telepathy, which is the direct transmission of messages, emotions, or other subjective states from one person to another without the use of any sensory channel of communication; clairvoyance, meaning direct responses to a physical object or event without any sensory contact; and precognition, or a noninferential response to a future event.

In 1930 Joseph Banks Rhine, a psychology professor at Duke University, founded a parapsychology laboratory at the school. The laboratory became a famous center for investigating ESP. Rhine's investigations focused on what he called psi, or psychic phenomena. He believed that there might be natural, although unknown, causes of mysterious occurrences, and he attempted to establish their existence by use of experimental and mathematical techniques. These techniques included testing people who seemed to possess an unusual ability for ESP. As part of these tests, Rhine developed a deck of 25 cards, each bearing one of five different symbols, and had his subjects attempt to guess the right symbol when the cards were concealed. Certain individuals guessed correctly more often than the law of averages would predict, and Rhine concluded those individuals possessed ESP. Rhine's investigations led him to believe that ESP underlies clairvoyance, the perception of external things without sensing them; telepathy, the perception of another person's thoughts; and precognition, the ability to predict events. However, later scientists criticized the methodology of Rhine's studies, noting some subjects could identify the symbols by physical marks on the cards. More recently, computers and other instruments have been used in the study of ESP


"Extrasensory Perception," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved

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